Category: Khor miao hui

Khor miao hui

Like other Mien languagesit is tonal and monosyllabic. This standard is also spoken by Iu Mien in the West, however, because most are refugees from Laostheir dialect incorporates influences from the Lao and Thai languages.

In China, Iu Mien is spoken in the following counties Mao There are 31 cited consonant phonemes in Iu Mien. A distinguishing feature of Iu Mien consonants is the presence of voiceless nasals and laterals. Unlike Hmongwhich generally prohibits coda consonants, Iu Mien has seven single consonant phonemes that can take the coda position.

Iu Mien is a tonal language with six observed tonemes. In the Iu Mien United Script the language's most common writing systemtones are not marked with diacritics; rather, a word's tone is indicated by a special marker letter at the end of the word. If a word lacks a marker, then it is to be pronounced with a middle tone. Iu Mien is an analytic language and lacks inflection. It is also a monosyllabic languagewith most of its lexicon consisting of one syllable.

The language follows a SVO word order. Some other syntactic properties include the following:. In the past, the lack of an alphabet caused low rates of literacy amongst the Iu Mien speakers. It had been written with Chinese characters in China; however, this is extremely difficult for Iu Mien speakers from other countries such as Laos and from groups who now live in the West. In an effort to address this, an Iu Mien Unified Script was created in using the Latin script, based on an earlier orthography developed in China.

This orthography distinguishes 30 initials, finals, and eight tones.

khor miao hui

Hyphens are used to link adjectives with the nouns they modify. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Redirected from Iu-Mien language. For the people, see Iu Mien people. Language family. Asian Lexicography Conference, Chiangmai 24—26th May Archived from the original PDF on Links to related articles.

Languages of China. Standard Mandarin. Sino-Tibetan languages.Since the late 18th century, the Hmong alone among the Miao groups have slowly migrated out of the southern provinces of China, where about 2.

See also China: People. Some 1. More thanlive in the United States and nearly 20, more in France 15,Australia 2,French Guiana 1,Canadaand Argentina They were slowly driven southward and marginalized by the expanding population of the Han Chinese.

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Traditionally, the Hmong practiced the shifting cultivation of unirrigated upland crops; buckwheat, barley, and millet were grown at the highest altitudes, and rice and corn maize at lower elevations. Virgin forest was cleared and burnt off for the planting of new fields; when soil fertility declined usually after several decadesthe entire village would relocate.

In the late 19th century the opium poppy was introduced into the highlands by outside traders, and the Hmong began to cultivate it in an integrated cycle together with corn and dry rice.

They sold opium to itinerant traders, usually Chinese, in return for silver. The silver was used in bridewealth payments, and the trading system often involved a loan against a future opium harvest. By the late 20th century, shifting cultivation had become impracticable except in a few remote areas. In response to government programs in Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam, the Hmong have now largely abandoned shifting cultivation and opium production.

They have instead turned to the permanent-field cultivation of crops such as corn or the gardening of flowers, fruits, and vegetables, which they sell in lowland markets. Hmong society is organized through a number of patrilineal clans with Chinese surnames such as LiWang, and Yang.

Smaller descent groups within these clans comprise people united through a known common ancestor and shared ancestral rituals. Surname exogamy, or outmarriage, is still strictly observed: a Li man may not marry a Li woman.

The role of women in traditional clan culture is more ambiguous; their spirits were cared for in the afterlife, but their social status was low. Clans bridge the broad cultural divisions that are thought to reflect the migration of different groups of Hmong from central China.

By the late 20th century there was greater proximity between the cultural groups—more intermarriage occurred and mixed settlements had become commonplace—yet the sense of difference between the divisions still remained strong. Hmong cultural life and religious beliefs are extremely rich, like the embroidery and love songs for which the Hmong are noted.

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A certain amount of bridewealthtraditionally in silver, must be paid by the family of the groom to the family of the bride. Female suicides, often by swallowing opium, were quite common. A man may have more than one wife; co-wives live together in the same house and treat their children equally. In Southeast Asia rows of unmarried boys and girls play catch with a cloth ball, while in China there is the beating back and forth of a feather shuttlecock.

These games may lead to further meetings between a young couple and eventually to marriage. In cases of serious sickness or misfortune, a shaman is invited to the house, where he enters a possessive trance in order to visit the otherworld and locate the missing soul of the patient. Funeral rites may last several days, and there is a series of mortuary rituals that takes place some years after a death.

The corpse is buried, usually in a place selected—like the sites of villages are—according to the Chinese system of geomancy feng shui. Sometimes a shaman acts as a political leader, as there is no specifically Hmong political institution above the level of the village or local descent group. From the late 19th through the 20th century the Hmong have periodically risen up in armed revolt against colonial and postcolonial authorities, a response to the exploitation and hardship imposed by more dominant peoples.

There is no traditional form of writing for Hmong, but legends explain how they lost their writing at the dawn of time and describe the circumstances under which it will one day be restored. Although a variety of scripts are now in use for the language, messianic movements persist.Miao is the official Chinese term for four distinct groups of people who are only distantly related through language or culture: the Hmu people of southeast Guizhouthe Qo Xiong people of west Hunanthe A-Hmao people of Yunnanand the Hmong people of Guizhou, SichuanGuangxiand Yunnan see China: People.

There are some nine million Miao in China, of whom the Hmong constitute probably one-third, according to the French scholar Jacques Lemoine, writing in the Hmong Studies Journal in The Miao are related in language and some other cultural features to the Yao; among these peoples the two groups with the closest degree of relatedness are the Hmong Miao and the Iu Mien Yao.

The customs and histories of the four Miao groups are quite different, and they speak mutually unintelligible languages. Of all the Miao peoples, only the Hmong have migrated out of China. Agriculture is the chief means of subsistence for all the groups, who in the past practiced the shifting cultivation of rice and corn maizetogether with the opium poppy.

Opium was sold in lowland markets and brought in silver, which was used as bridewealth payments. Shifting cultivation and opium production have now largely ceased, and in Thailand the Hmong have turned to the permanent field cultivation of market garden vegetables, fruit, corn, and flowers.

Chung Keng Quee

Traditionally, the Miao had little political organization above the village level, and the highest position was that of village leader. In China the Miao have come under the political organization common to the whole of China; where minority populations are dense, they live in autonomous counties, townships, or prefectures, where a certain amount of self-representation is allowed.

In religion, most Miao practice ancestor worship and believe in a wide variety of spirits. They have shamans who may exorcise malevolent spirits or recall the soul of a sick patient, and animal sacrifice is widespread see shamanism ; soul loss.

However, a complete lack of religious faith is common among educated Miao in China, while significant proportions of the A-Hmao in China and the Hmong in Southeast Asia have become Christian. Young people are permitted to select their own mates and premarital sex is tolerated, although sexual regimes are stricter in China, as are controls on reproduction.

One form of institutionalized courtship involves antiphonal singing ; another is the throwing back and forth of a ball between groups of boys and girls from different villages, at the New Year. Polygyny is traditional but in practice has been limited to the well-to-do. The household is usually made up of several generations, including married sons and their families. The youngest son usually stays with the parents and inherits the house, while elder sons may move out with their own families to form new households.

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khor miao hui

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Shamanismreligious phenomenon centred on the shaman, a person believed to achieve various powers through trance or ecstatic religious experience. The Dong people are settled in small communities in Guangxi and Guizhou; they share with the Miao group an autonomous prefecture set up in southeast Guizhou in History at your fingertips.

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Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.The Vietnamese varieties are very poorly known; population estimates are not even available.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC stated that the White and Green dialects "are said to be mutually intelligible to a well-trained ear, with pronunciation and vocabulary differences analogous to the differences between British and American English.

Several Chinese varieties may be more distinct than the varieties listed above:. A colleague has talked with speakers of a number of these closely-related lects in the US, in Thailand and in China, and has had many discussions with Chinese linguists and foreign researchers or community development workers who have had extensive contact with speakers of these lects.

As a result of these conversations this colleague believes that many of these lects are likely to have high inherent mutual intelligibility within the cluster. Culturally, while each sub-group prides itself on its own distinctives, they also recognize that other sub-groups within this category are culturally similar to themselves and accept the others as members of the same general ethnic group. However, this category of lects is internally varied and geographically scattered and mixed over a broad land area, and comprehensive intelligibility testing would be required to confirm reports of mutual intelligibility throughout the cluster.

The CDC states that "though some Hmong report difficulty understanding speakers of a dialect not their own, for the most part, White and Hmong Leeg speakers seem to understand one another".

Iu Mien language

Although mutually intelligible, the dialects differ in both lexicon and certain aspects of phonology. The vowel systems of Hmong Daw and Mong Leeg are as shown in the following charts. Phonemes particular to each dialect are color-coded respectively: [13]. The Dananshan standard of China is similar. Phonemic differences from Hmong Daw and Mong Leeg are color-coded. Hmong makes a number of phonemic contrasts unfamiliar to English speakers.

All non-glottal stops and affricates distinguish aspirated and unaspirated forms, most also prenasalization independently of this. The consonant inventory of Hmong is shown in the chart below. Consonants particular to Hmong Daw and Mong Leeg are color-coded respectively.

Aspirates, voiceless fricatives, voiceless nasals, and glottal stop only occur with yin tones 1, 3, 5, 7.

Rise Beyond Boundaries - ME4 Soh Miao Hui (Full version)

Standard orthography is added in angled brackets. Glottal stop is not written; it is not distinct from a zero initial. The difference in analysis e. Those in favor of a unit-phoneme analysis generally argue for this based on distributional evidence i.

Hmong syllables have a very simple structure: onsets are obligatory except in a few particlesnuclei may consist of a monophthong or diphthong, and coda consonants apart from nasals are prohibited. Hmong is a tone language and makes use of seven Hmong Daw and Mong Leeg or eight Dananshan distinct tones.

The Dananshan tones are transcribed as pure tone. However, given how similar several of them are, it is likely that there are also phonational differences as in Hmong Daw and Mong Leeg. Tones 7 and 8 are used in early Chinese loans with entering tonesuggesting they may once have marked checked syllables.He was involved in many other industries including farming, pawnbroking and logging. In the published accounts of British rule in Malaya, sufficient prominence has not always been given to the efforts of these early pioneers; the reaper, intent on his own work, is apt to forget the man who sowed.

These Council Minutes are the record of the work of the sowers. He had left his wife Madam Lin in China to look after his elderly mother.

khor miao hui

Still receiving no news, she then sent Keng Quee. When Keng Quee arrived in Perak, he discovered that both his father Hsing Fa and his brother Keng Seng were by that time well established in business. Information about his career before that time is generally unknown. Chung's name has been spelt in many different ways due to differences of dialect and transliteration. Keng has also been spelt Chin, Kung, King etc.

The original mine field, Klian Pauh is where the jail at Taiping stands today. According to Chung Keng Quee in his evidence provided to the Straits Government, the development of the Larut tin fields was initiated by Malay Chief 'Che Long Ja'afar by advancing money to the Chinese miners in his district to work the mines and it was only in his son Ngah Ibrahim 's time c.

At a time when Ngah Ibrahim was administrator of Larut the Chinese had increased in number and in early two large groups were formed by the Chinese, the "Five Associations" whose members worked in the mines of Klian Pauh and the "Four Associations" whose members worked in the mines of Klian Baharu. Many Hakka fled China when the Taiping Rebellion broke out there and found work in the mines of Chung, Keng Quee establishing his position over the mining area in Larut as leader of the Hai San from to While the first of the Larut wars broke out over land and water rights, the rivalry between the two groups already existed in Ujong Salang, Selangor, Penang, Singapore and Kwangtung itself where both groups fought with each other between and To many people it appeared that the trouble in Larut was merely a continuation of the trouble between the Ghee Hin and Tua Pek Kong societies in Ujong Salang in which later spread to Penang.

The Larut Wars were fought between Hakka and Hakka. The First Larut War began in July when arguments over control of watercourse to their mines escalated and led members of the Hai San Society to drive the members of the Ghee Hin society out of Klian Bahru now known as Kamunting. The Second Larut War took place in and was sparked off by a gambling quarrel in June of that year between members of the two opposing secret societies.

The Hai San members took 14 Ghee Hin as prisoners, 13 of whom were killed. The 14th escaped to inform his clan and the Ghee Hin retaliated by attacking the Hai San village, razing it to the ground and killing 40 men in the process. The battle continued back and forth and spread to Province Wellesley and the island of Penang and other secret societies joined the fray.Underrepresentation of Asian genomes has hindered population and medical genetics research on Asians, leading to population disparities in precision medicine.

khor miao hui

By whole-genome sequencing of 4, Singapore Chinese, Malays, and Indians, we found Population structure analysis demonstrated great representation of Asian genetic diversity by three ethnicities in Singapore and revealed a Malay-related novel ancestry component.

Additionally, we identified 20 candidate loci for natural selection, 14 of which harbored robust associations with complex traits and diseases. Finally, we show that our data can substantially improve genotype imputation in diverse Asian and Oceanian populations.

These results highlight the value of our data as a resource to empower human genetics discovery across broad geographic regions. Keywords: Asian populations; GWAS; admixture; demographic history; genetic diversity; imputation; natural selection; population structure; precision medicine; whole-genome sequencing. Abstract Underrepresentation of Asian genomes has hindered population and medical genetics research on Asians, leading to population disparities in precision medicine.

Publication types Research Support, Non-U.The odds were all against these men, yet no one considered the matter. It's by all odds the best jack-o'-lantern I ever saw in my life.

Dr Khor Hui Min

With the odds against him, Tom started in to regain the lost ground. App Store Google Play Easy to Read A clean presentation that helps you get everything you need to be in the know. Personalized Find the stories and scores that matter most to you. Fast Get lightning-fast scoring alerts as they happen.

With the addition of Japanese stud Shohei Ohtani on Friday, the team saw its World Series odds dramatically increase. Coming into the day, the Westgate Las Vegas Superbook listed the Angels at 50-1 to win the World Series. After the Ohtani news, that went to 30-1. Japanese star Shohei Ohtani's signing with the Los Angeles Angels had ripple effects in Las Vegas as well. The Angels go from 50-1 to 30-1 to win the World Series at the Westgate Las Vegas SuperBook.

With their new odds, the Angels would be in the same category as the Tampa Bay Rays, Toronto Blue Jays, Seattle Mariners and Milwaukee Brewers. Note that those odds are from November and may have changed since then. When Westgate released its odds in November, the Angels were tied with the Chicago White Sox, Atlanta Braves and San Francisco Giants at 50-1.

While Ohtani should help the Angels, the team is still considered a fringe playoff contender according to Las Vegas. None of the teams with 30-1 odds made the postseason in 2017, though many came close. That includes the Angels, who finished at 80-82.

Hmong language

Many believe Ohtani can be a difference-maker, at least on the mound. If Ohtani is that good, you might as well put your money down now, because it would be tough to see the Angels miss the postseason with the next Babe Ruth and Mike Trout on the same team. Actually, you might want to put your money on the Angels even if you believe Ohtani is merely a good player instead of a legendary one.


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